Green gram is an important pulses crop in India and believed to be originated from India. It is short duration legume crop grown mostly as a fallow crop in rotation with rice. Similar to the leguminous pulses, green gram, enriches soil nitrogen content. It is grown mostly in Asian region traditionally while its cultivation has spread to Africa and Americas relatively in the recent times. More than 70%t of world’s green gram production comes from India.
Green gram is scientifically known as Vignaradiata and it is commonly known as Mung in India. The plant grows as a small shrub with twining upper branches.
Mung, similar to other pulses, is grown primarily for its protein rich seeds. Mung contains 20-25% protein. The plants are sometimes cut and ploughed into the soil to enrich soil nitrogen.
Seasons and cultivation
Green gram is a warm weather crop and comes up in areas receiving an annual rainfall ranging from 50 to 70 cm. It is mainly cultivated in a cereal-pulse cropping system primarily to conserve soil nutrients and utilize the left over soil moisture particularly, after rice cultivation. Hence, although it can be grown in all the seasons, majority of green gram cultivation falls in either Rabi or late Rabi seasons particularly in peninsular India.
Optimum temperature range for growth is 27-30oC. A dry harvest period is desirable as this forces the crop to mature and reduces the risk of weather damage. Green gram is less tolerant to water logging.
Central India: Mumbai, Jalna, Latur, Akola, Indore, Pipariya, Harda
Northern India: Delhi, Kanpur, Lalitpur, Jhansi
Southern India: Tandur, Gulbarga, Yadgir, Bidar, Raichur, Sedam, Chennai
Futures’ trading in mung was suspended in 2007.
India is a net importer of mung. Imports are mainly sourced from Myanmar to meet the domestic demand. These imports have been hovering around 0.5 to 1.5 lakh tonnes during the past few years.
Major export destinations: NA
Major import sources: Myanmar
Factors influencing prices
- Crop: Extent of area sown under the crop, condition of the crop and thereby the expectation of output. Rainfall and weather conditions that could affect the crop output.
- Demand expectation: Any changes in demand both domestic as well as international markets.
- Imports: Demand supply situation in major import sources.
- Prices of related commodities or substitutes.
- Government intervention policies: Any change in government policy relating to the crops such as
o Changes in minimum support prices (MSP)
o Direct procurement by the government agencies and storage in warehouses
o Restriction on stock holding limits of the commodity
o Change in tariffs and
o Ban or changes in external trade policies with respect to the commodity.