Sesame is an important and oldest grown oilseed crop in the world. It is also known as til or gingely apartment from various other local names in India. Sesame is reported to be originated in South Africa and was introduced to India by migrants prior to the Indus valley civilization. It is scientifically known as Sesamumindicum L.
India is the largest producer of sesame. It is widely preferred for its qualities of high drought tolerance and the highest oil content in the seeds. There mainly two distinct types of sesame seeds are popular viz., white and black though a few other varieties varying from red to rose or from brown or grey are also available.
Economically Important Products
Seeds: sesame seeds are used in various food and snack preparations as well as in salad dressing.
Oil: Sesame seeds contain the highest oil compared to any other oilseed to an extent of 50% and above. The unique qualities of sesame oil are stability and resistance to rancidity, with long shelf life due to the presence of the high level of natural antioxidants.
Meal: Sesame seeds are rich in protein with about 25% of their weight. Sesame meal contains 35-50% protein and used as feed for poultry and livestock.
Climate and Cultivation
Sesame crop is tropical plant and highly drought resistant during the vegetative due to its extensive roots. It is grown in all types of soils but well suited for well drained fertile soils. The plant is susceptible to salt and water logging. Sesame seed requires around 20oC for germination and more than 23o C favours good growth and high yields. Crop duration is around 90-120 days depending on season and varieties.
Seasons and Crop calendar
In India sesame cultivation spread across all the parts except in northern and north-eastern region. It is grown in different seasons in different parts of the country. On the whole it is grown all the three seasons. However, majority of sesame is grown as a kharif crop under rainfed conditions in central and southern parts of the country including Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Orissa, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. However, a small amount of sesame is cultivated as a summer crop under irrigated conditions in eastern and southern parts of the country covering states of West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
White bold seeded, export quality: Nirmala, Gujarat Til-2, JTS-8, HT-1, Tapi and Phule Til-1
Black seeded for domestic/ medicinal use: TMV-3, CO-1 and GT-10
High oil content: TKG-21, JT-27, TKG-22, Gautam, E-8, Kayamkulam-1 Tilothama, and TSS-6
Major spot markets: Bishnupur, Arambag, Kalna, Baduria, Shantipur, Burdwan, Hanumangarh, Ganganagar, Alwar, Indore, Rajkot, Amreli and Bhavnagar.
Futures markets: NA
India has been net exporter of sesame seed. Major export destinations are Asian countries.
Major export destinations: Asian countries
Major import sources: NA
Factors Influencing Prices
- Crop condition and output expectations: Extent of area sown under the crop, condition of the crop and output expectation.
- Monitoring of rainfall and weather conditions that could affect the crop output.
- Domestic demand expectation: Any changes in demand both domestic as well as international markets.
- Stocksavailable in the market.
- External demand and supply: Demand supply situation in major import sources.
- Trade policies: Any change in government policy relating to change in tariffs etc.,