Soyabean contains only a moderate amount of oil has attained a greater importance as an oilseed in the recent years on account of its easy adaptability and resilience for cultivation in a wide variety of climatic conditions as well as its capability to give high yields compared to any other oilseed.
Soyabean has become the largest producing oilseed, contributing for nearly 60% of total world oilseeds production. Soyabean is reported to be originated from China. Although, soyabean is a native of South Asia, majority of the world’s soybean has been cultivated in the United States as well as in South American countries. In India, soyabean cultivation has picked up momentum during the past 15 years.
Soyabean is cultivated for its seeds, which are rich source of protein and oil. Protein content of the seed is about 40% and oil content is about 15-20%.
Oil: Soya oil recovery is about 17%
Meal: A bi-product, rich in protein and used extensively as a feed for livestock, poultry and fish.
Climate and Cultivation
Soyabean is a tropical season crop but can be cultivated in subtropical and temperate climates as well. Though, the plant is resistant to relatively extreme temperatures, optimum growth takes place between 10o C to 30o C. Soyabean is normally cultivated as a kharif crop in India. It comes up well within a rainfall of 600 mm to 1000 mm. The crop can be cultivated in most types of soil but thrives best in warm, fertile and clay land.
Crop operations of soyabean vary across major producing countries. Crop season in Brazil and Argentina is relatively longer starting from October -December and extends till May-June. But, the crop season in the US, China and India is shorter from April-May to October-November. This has apparently given an additional advantage for Brazil and Argentina to export during the lean seasons of other countries like India and China.
Cultivation and seasons in India
Nearly 60% of acreage as well as production of soyabean in India comes from Madhya Pradesh while Maharashtra is in the second place contributing for about 30 %.
Major cultivated varieties
|UP, Rajasthan, Bihar||Bragg, PK 262, PK 372, PK 414, Pusa 27, Pusa 40, SL 4, SL 96 Palm Soya|
|MP & Maharashtra||Bragg, Gaurav, MACS 571, MACS 124, MACS 450, PK 308, PK 472|
|Andhra Pradesh||PK 472, MACS 58, MACS 124, JS 335, MACS 201|
Indore, Ujjain, Dewas, Mandsore, Bhopal, Nagpur and Kota
International: Chicago Board of Trading (CBOT) is the largest soya futures market Dalian Commodity Exchange, China
In India soya futures are traded in three forms, seed, oil and meal. Major exchanges that offer futures trading in soya complex include NBOT, NCDEX, MCX and NMCE.
Major export destinations: NA
Major import sources: NA
Factors Influencing Prices
Carryover stocks: Leftover stocks from the previous year’s production after meeting the demand.
Expected demand: Average level of consumption and exports during the past few years
Crop acreage: Extent of area sown under the crop
Production: Estimated output based on the acreage and weather conditions and pest infestation etc.,
Imports and exports: In case of edible oils, the traders need to know the details of important sources and destinations of the external trade. Further, the traders have to monitor the crop status in the respective countries.
Government policies: Any change in government policy relating to the crops such as minimum support price (MSP)
Procurement: Direct procurement by the government agencies and storage in warehouses change in tariff and base prices of externally traded goods will have a direct impact on the respective commodity prices.